NASA's James Webb Space Telescope to reveal secrets of the Red Planet

20 Feb 2018, 5:47 pm
Mars rovers and orbiters have found signs that Mars once hosted liquid water on its surface. Much of that water escaped over time. How much water was lost, and how does the water that’s left move from ice to atmosphere to soil? During its first year of operations, NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope will seek answers. Webb also will study mysterious methane plumes that hint at possible geological or even biological activity.

Survivors of blood or marrow transplantation are likely to experience cognitive impairment

20 Feb 2018, 5:47 pm
Allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation recipients are at a significantly higher risk of cognitive impairment in the years post-transplantation, according to a new study. The research helps add a missing piece to a long-unsolved puzzle about post-transplant effects on recipients, specifically that vulnerable subpopulations of similar transplants can benefit from targeted interventions in the years after they receive their lifesaving treatment.

Researchers invent tiny, light-powered wires to modulate brain's electrical signals

20 Feb 2018, 5:47 pm
A new study shows how tiny, light-powered wires could be fashioned out of silicon to manipulate electrical signaling between neurons. The research offers a new avenue to shed light on—and perhaps someday treat—brain disorders.

Typhoid outbreak: Genetic cause of extensive drug-resistance found

20 Feb 2018, 3:41 pm
The genetic cause behind a strain of typhoid's resistance to five classes of antibiotics has been uncovered by scientists at the Wellcome Sanger Institute and their collaborators. There is currently a major outbreak of typhoid fever in Pakistan. This study shows the typhoid strain causing the outbreak acquired an additional piece of DNA to become resistant to multiple antibiotics, including a third-generation antibiotic.

Quintillionths of a second in slow motion

20 Feb 2018, 3:41 pm
Many chemical processes run so fast that they are only roughly understood. To clarify these processes, researchers have now developed a methodology with a resolution of quintillionths of a second. The new technology stands to help better understand processes like photosynthesis and develop faster computer chips.

Infection site affects how a virus spreads through the body

20 Feb 2018, 3:41 pm
A person is more likely to get infected by HIV through anal intercourse than vaginal, but no one knows quite why. A new study shows that infection sites could affect the immune system's response to a virus and the way the virus spreads through the body.

Astronomers reveal secrets of most distant supernova ever detected

20 Feb 2018, 3:24 pm
Astronomers have confirmed the discovery of the most distant supernova ever detected -- a huge cosmic explosion that took place 10.5 billion years ago, or three-quarters the age of the Universe itself.

Removing globally used anxiety drug from recycled and wastewater at low cost

20 Feb 2018, 3:24 pm
Researchers can now remove a common anxiety drug from recycled water and wastewater, using low-cost titanium dioxide nanofibers. In cities running out of water, removing pharmaceuticals from wastewater in a simple, low cost way is becoming a priority.

Genes activated in metastasis also drive the first stages of tumor growth

20 Feb 2018, 3:24 pm
Researchers have demonstrated that genes activated during metastasis are also able to initiate primary tumor development, and they explain the molecular mechanism involved.

When proteins shake hands

20 Feb 2018, 3:24 pm
Protein nanofibers often have outstanding properties such as a high stability, biodegradability, or antibacterial effect. Artificially creating these fibers is not easy, much less assigning them specific functions. That and how fibers with new properties can be successfully created is now being reported by materials scientists in a new study.

'Nobody poaches here': Study exposes misperception of poaching on the Great Barrier Reef and its remedy

20 Feb 2018, 2:50 pm
New research has revealed the tiny minority of fishers who poach on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) think the illegal practice is justified, because they believe 'everyone else is doing it.'

A trip to the mountains despite a heart condition?

20 Feb 2018, 2:50 pm
Cardiologists are in agreement that generally exercise in the mountains is a very good way to prevent or reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless what about those people who have a pre-existing cardiovascular condition? Under what circumstances is it safe for them to reside or holiday in high mountainous regions, and what rules should they apply to their conduct whilst there?

Grey squirrels beat reds in 'battle of wits'

20 Feb 2018, 2:50 pm
Problem-solving powers may help to explain why grey squirrels have taken over from native red squirrels in the United Kingdom, according to new research.

Moderate and severe exacerbations accelerate physical activity decline in COPD patients

20 Feb 2018, 2:50 pm
A new study shows that both moderate and severe exacerbations in COPD patients are associated with a decline in their physical activity level. Researchers observed that the acute drop in physical activity during a COPD exacerbation has an important and lasting effect.

Study of mollusk epidemic could help save endangered sea snail

20 Feb 2018, 2:50 pm
Overfishing and environmental change have pushed abalone species on the US west coast to the edge of extinction. Now a fatal disease threatens their recovery. But new research shows that some abalone species may be less susceptible to the disease than others, providing initial data that could help map where abalone could survive and thrive despite the disease.

Very long-chain lipids could help prevent dry eye disease

20 Feb 2018, 2:49 pm
Very long-chain lipids in the most superficial layer of the tear film cause severe dry eye disease when they were shortened in mice -- a result that could help develop new drugs for the disease.

Nitrate flux in the Arctic not following the decreasing NOx emissions in neighboring countries

20 Feb 2018, 2:49 pm
Nitrate deposits in the Arctic remains high even after the turn of the century, despite environmental policies adopted by neighboring countries in the late 20th century to cut nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions.

Pausing evolution makes bioproduction of chemicals affordable and efficient

19 Feb 2018, 8:50 pm
Circumventing evolution in cell factories can pave the way for commercializing new biobased chemicals to large-scale.

How newly discovered gene helps grow blood vessels

19 Feb 2018, 8:50 pm
A new study found that a newly discovered gene helps grow blood vessels when it senses inadequate blood flow to tissues.

In living color: Brightly-colored bacteria could be used to 'grow' paints and coatings

19 Feb 2018, 8:50 pm
Researchers have unlocked the genetic code behind some of the brightest and most vibrant colors in nature. The article is the first study of the genetics of structural color -- as seen in butterfly wings and peacock feathers -- and paves the way for genetic research in a variety of structurally colored organisms.