Novel subtype of multiple sclerosis

21 Aug 2018, 10:52 pm
Researchers have discovered a new subtype of multiple sclerosis (MS), providing a better understanding of the individualized nature of the disease.

A switch to turn fragrances on and off

21 Aug 2018, 10:52 pm
Scientists have discovered the switch in plants that turns off production of terpenoids -- carbon-rich compounds that play roles in plant physiology and are used by humans in everything from fragrances and flavorings to biofuels and pharmaceuticals.

Red or yellow? A simple paper test detects false or substandard antibiotics

21 Aug 2018, 10:52 pm
A laboratory is putting chemistry to work on a simple, inexpensive way to identify falsified or substandard antibiotics, offering a practical solution to a very real problem. The researchers have created a paper-based test that can quickly determine whether an antibiotic sample is appropriate strength, or diluted with filler substances like baking soda. Similar to the mechanism of a home pregnancy test, a strip of paper turns a distinctive color if a falsified antibiotic is present.

Vulnerable youth stress the importance of influential adults in their school lives

21 Aug 2018, 10:52 pm
Kids who faced daunting barriers to success in the classroom had a clear message for researchers who asked them as young adults to look back on their experiences with maltreatment, homelessness and their time in school: Adults can do better.

Orphaned elephants have a tougher social life

21 Aug 2018, 10:52 pm
Young female orphan elephants have a tougher social life than non-orphans, a new study suggests, adding to a growing body of evidence of how the impacts of poaching cascade through elephant societies.

Exposure to tobacco smoke significantly impacts teen health

21 Aug 2018, 10:52 pm
Secondhand smoke linked to poor health, higher absenteeism, increased likelihood to seek medical attention among adolescents.

Structural changes that occur in enveloped viruses before invading host

21 Aug 2018, 10:50 pm
The critical, structural changes that enveloped viruses, such as HIV, Ebola and influenza, undergo before invading host cells have been revealed by scientists using nano-infrared spectroscopic imaging.

NASA gets up close with Greenland's melting ice

21 Aug 2018, 9:52 pm
With a new research plane and a new base to improve its chances of outsmarting Atlantic hurricanes, NASA's Oceans Melting Greenland campaign takes to the sky this week for its third year of gathering data on how the ocean around Greenland is melting its glaciers.

Genetic model offers elegant tool for testing Parkinson's disease therapies

21 Aug 2018, 6:53 pm
For the past decade, Parkinson's disease researchers have relied on the experimental equivalent of using a sledgehammer to tune a guitar to test new therapies for the disease. This may be a reason clinical trials of promising neuroprotective drugs fail. But, in new research published today in Nature Parkinson's Disease, University of British Columbia researchers may have found the ideal tool for the job.

Preparing for chemical attacks with improved computer models

21 Aug 2018, 6:52 pm
Researchers have used computer models on the Stampede2 supercomputer to replicate the dispersal of gases from the April 4, 2017 chemical weapons attack in northwest Syria. The simulations were able to capture real world conditions despite a scarcity of information. Recently, the team developed a coarse model that uses seasonal conditions as background information to speed up calculations, reducing forecasting time from days to minutes.

New type 1 diabetes therapy shows promise for long-term reversal in both humans, dogs

21 Aug 2018, 6:52 pm
A collagen formulation mixed with pancreatic cells is the first minimally invasive therapy to successfully reverse Type 1 diabetes within 24 hours and maintain insulin independence for at least 90 days, a pre-clinical animal study shows.

Certain antibiotic-resistant infections on the rise

21 Aug 2018, 6:52 pm
Nearly six percent of urinary tract infections analyzed by a California emergency department were caused by drug-resistant bacteria in a one-year study period.

Steps to keep buildings functioning after natural hazards

21 Aug 2018, 6:52 pm
After an earthquake, hurricane, tornado or other natural hazard, it's considered a win if no one gets hurt and buildings stay standing. But an even bigger victory is possible: keeping those structures operational. This outcome could become more likely with improved standards and codes for the construction of residential and commercial buildings, according to a new report.

New method may allow country-level real-time surveillance of drug-resistant tuberculosis

21 Aug 2018, 6:52 pm
Medical researchers describe a new technique for linking samples submitted for tuberculosis testing to the individuals who provided the samples and the location from where they were submitted, in a way that can provide the continuous national surveillance necessary for eradicating tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis.

Lower-risk malaria regions are breeding grounds for drug-resistant strains

21 Aug 2018, 6:52 pm
New drug-resistant strains of the parasite that causes malaria tend to evolve in regions with lower malaria risk; in areas with high transmission rates, they get outcompeted by the more common, drug-sensitive strains inside the human host. In high-transmission settings, it takes a long time for drug-resistant strains to take hold, but once they do, they can spread rapidly, according to a new study.

Enigmatic African fossils rewrite story of when lemurs got to Madagascar

21 Aug 2018, 6:52 pm
Research reveals that a 20-million-year-old African fossil, long thought to be a bat, actually represents one of the earliest branches of the lemur family tree. The reassessment challenges a long-held view that lemurs descended from ancestors that colonized Madagascar in a single wave roughly 60 million years ago, and were the first mammals to get there. Instead, the researchers say two separate lemur lineages may have arrived independently, and much later than previously thought.

Two consumer baby monitors show worrisome results in measuring vital signs

21 Aug 2018, 6:52 pm
Researchers who tested two commercially available baby monitors are raising serious concerns about the accuracy of these products, which are marketed to parents, but are not regulated by the US Food & Drug Administration.

Annual pap test a 'thing of the past?'

21 Aug 2018, 6:52 pm
The US Preventive Services Task Force has updated its 2012 recommendations for cervical cancer screening with one important addition. This is the first time they are recommending a method of cervical cancer screening that does not include the Pap test -- the gold-standard screening test for more than 75 years. A leading OB/GYN physician provides an important review of these new guidelines, which preserve the greatest range of choices for practitioners and patients.

In Eastern US, adult trees adapt and acclimate to local climate

21 Aug 2018, 6:52 pm
Trees growing in temperate forests in the eastern US show strong adaptation or acclimation to local climate. So reports a new study that analyzed more than 23,000 tree cores to investigate how adult trees respond to changes in climatic conditions.

Steep decline in student belief that God created humans, 32-year Australian study reveals

21 Aug 2018, 4:55 pm
Australian university students give far more credit than the previous generation to the science of human evolution and far less to creationism or divine guidance, according to a landmark new study. The extent and pace of decline in the Australian students' commitment to religious views about divine creation, especially creationism, is in distinct contrast to the corresponding beliefs among American students and the American public.